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Important account of the Ottoman Empire

TOTT, (F. DE.) Mémoires du baron de Tott, sur les Turcs et les Tartares. Premiere Partie [-Quatrieme Partie]. A Amsterdam, 1784. Four parts bound in two volumes. lvi, 274 pp.; blank leaf; 301, [1] pp.; 252 pp.; 208 pp. 8vo. Contemporary half calf, spine gilt in compartments, red labels with gilt lettering, boards with blue marbled paper , spines a bit rubbed, small defects to head of spines.

€ 900

Atabey 1227; Blackmer 1667 (edition Amsterdam 1785); Hage Chahine 4820; Chadenat 994 (also Amsterdam 1785); Conlon 84:1854. First edition, scarce, of this important account of the Ottoman Empire. François Baron de Tott (Hungarian: Báró Tóth Ferenc) (August 17, 1733, Champigny, – September 24, 1793, Hungary) was an aristocrat and a French military officer of Hungarian origin: the descendant of a Hungarian nobleman, who had emigrated to the Ottoman Empire and then moved on to France with the cavalry of Count Miklos Berscenyi, and was later raised to the rank of baron. In 1755 he travelled to Constantinople, the capital city of the Ottoman Empire, as the secretary of his uncle Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, who had been appointed ambassador. His main duty was to learn the Turkish language, to investigate the situation in the Ottoman Empire and to gather information about the Crimean Khanate. In 1767, he was appointed consul in Crimea in order to learn about the country and incite the Crimean Tatars to rebel against Imperial Russia. François de Tott played a major role during the Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774). Leaving Crimea for a while, he was commissioned by the Ottoman government with the task of defending the Dardanelles against the Russian fleet. Following in the footprints of Claude Alexandre de Bonneval, known as Humbarac Ahmed Pasha, François de Tott was involved in the reform efforts of the Ottoman military. He succeeded in having a new foundry built to make howitzers, and was instrumental in the creation of mobile artillery units. He built fortifications on the Bosphorus and started a naval science course that laid the foundation stone for the later naval school. He travelled across the Ottoman Empire, visiting coastal cities around the Mediterranean Sea, mainly Alexandria, Aleppo, Smyrna, Salonika and Tunis. He also prospected the area for the construction of a canal in Suez. François Baron de Tott’s Memoirs were published in four volumes. He returned to Hungary from Switzerland, where he had moved after the French Revolution. He died on September 24, 1793 in Hungary. “….. an influential work on the Turkish Empire published by the baron de Tott …..” (Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, vol. 3, p. 190). “Ouvrage curieux contenant des renseignements très intéressants sur les moeurs des Turcs” (Chadenat). – Each part with half-title, title and separate paging and signatures.

Paley’s first major contribution to philosophical thought in French translation

PALEY, W. Des différentes formes de gouvernement, et de leurs avantages ou désavantages respectifs; de la constitution Angloise, et de la liberté civile, Par William Paley, ….. Ouvrage traduit de l’Anglois, sur la quatrième Édition, par M. Bertin. A Paris, Chez l’Auteur, ….. & Chez Defer de Maisonneuve ….. 1789. 109, [3, blank] pp. 8vo. Original blue paper wrappers.

€ 450

Conlon 89:10307; The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century British Philosophers, vol ii, pp. 671-677. First French edition, in fact a partial summery and translation, of Paley’s influential Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy. It was Paley’s first major contribution to philosophical thought and based on his much popular lectures on moral philosophy at Christ’s College. It is a diverse work dealing with political, proto-utilitarian, ethical, scientific and theological subjects and its great significance lies in Paley’s contribution to the then evolving concepts of liberty and virtue. “William Paley had argued in his Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy of 1785 that God’s will could be ascertained either through scripture or through the light of nature, and that the latter allowed us to determinre whether an act is right or wrong by its tendency “to promote or diminsih human happiness,” since it is God’s will that human beings live happily” (Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, vol iv, p. 215). “Paley’s Principles is a handbook on the duties and obligations of civil life rather than a philosophical treatise. (…..) Paley believed that no special faculty is required to enable us to have moral knowledge. Thus he dismissed the views of those who have argued that morality requires either a moral sense, or an intuitive perception of right and wrong, or any other innate or instinctive capacity. (…..) The bulk of the Principles is a detailed discussion of our duties to others, to ourselves, and to God. The final part is an outline of the elements of political knowledge. The wide acclaim accorded to Paley’s work is said to have stirred Bentham to bring out his own version of the utilitarian doctrine in Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) (Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol vi, p 19). “His moral system, in which he is said to have anticipated Bentham, is the best statement of the utilitarianism of the eighteenth century” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP)). “Most important is Paley’s appropriation of Locke’s religious programme: to expound and defend the divine law as the rule of human life and to explore its sources in nature and revelation” (The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century British Philosophers, with an extensive discussion of Paley’s work). – A very nice copy, uncut and with good margins.

Acheté au Cap françois isles S. Domingues au mois d’avril 1789. 21 les 3 vol.

(HILLIARD D’AUBERTEUIL, M.R.) Considérations sur l’État présent de la colonie Française de Saint-Domingue. Ouvrage Politique et Législatif; Présenté au Ministre de la Marine, Par Mr. H.D. A Paris, Chez Grangé, 1776-1777. With one folding table, title vignette, head- and tail pieces. Two volumes. – (Together with:) (DUBUISSON, P.-U.) Nouvelles Considérations sur Saint-Domingue, en réponse à celles de M.H.D, Par M. D.B***. Première Partie [- Seconde Partie.] A Paris, Chez Cellot & Jombert, 1780. With two folding tables. Two parts in one volume. Together two works in 3 volumes. xvi, 327, [1] pp.; [4], iv, 368 pp; [4], 178, [2, privilege] pp; [4], 164 pp. 8vo. Contemporary marbled calf, spines richly gilt with raised bands, red edges, contrasting labels with gilt lettering, expert repairs to a few spine ends.

€ 2800

First work: Kress 7216; INED 2271; JFBL H180; Echeverria & Wilkie 776/19; Sabin 31897; Hogg 1798; Chadenat 1370; Leclerc 1388; Muller 527 (first volume only); not in Goldsmiths; not in Einaudi; Peignot, ii, p. 107. Scarce first edition, suppressed by Arrêt du Conseil d’État, 17 décembre 1777 for containing severe criticism on the administration of the colony. Full of valuable economic information on Saint-Domingue, this scathing attack on French colonial administration was confiscated and the printer punished’ (JFBL). ‘The author advocates free trade between Santo Domingo and the British North American colonies’ (Echeverria & Wilkie). At the end of volume two the author announces a third volume which, however, was never published. The work proposes various reforms in the administration of the colony, favours mariages, also among the black people and the mulattos, discusses slavery, the customes and moeurs of the creoles, mulattos and black people, and aims at a new and better form of running the colony. This was written when the colony reached a peak in its development. The Ministry of Navy was severly displeased with the publication and hence its suppression. Hilliard became known in colonial circles for his fiery temperament, his provocative rhetoric and radical critiques of the establihed order. He was a supporter of the American revolution and was a correspondent of Franklin and Jefferson. ‘Considérations sur le commerce, l’agriculture, l’administration, l’esclavage et la population. Hilliard veut peupler par tous les moyens cette colonie, dont le climat se montre, par ailleurs, favorable à la population; il est indispensable d’encourager les mariages, ou, à défaut, une sorte de concubinage légitime; ces idées valent également pour les Nègres, dont il faut encourager la natalité, et par conséquent adoucir le sort’ (INED). ‘Cet ouvrage donne un état très exact de la colonie de Saint-Domingue au moment de son plus grand développement. Il contient aussi des renseignements très curieux sur les moeurs et coutumes des créoles, mulâtres et nègres’ (Chadenat). ‘ – Very rare on the market as the work was confiscated and destroyed upon publication. Second work: Conlon 80:1009; INED 1489; Sabin 21038; not found in Echeverria & Wilkie, Leclerc, Muller, JFBL, Monaghan, Chadenat, Hogg, Kress, Goldsmiths’ or Einaudi. Very rare first edition of this critical analysis of Hilliard d’Auberteuil’s important work. Dubuisson, who travelled extensively in the Americas and wrote several books on the American colonies, here presents a demographic and economic review of the colony. In presenting this review he discusses and criticizes the work by Hilliard, a work which was condamned for its scathing attack on colonial administration. Dubuisson discusses population, the French colonists, the position of mulattos and black people, discusses slavery (the pages 67-86 deal with slavery), etc. Dubuisson was a playwright and historian, active in various capacities in France, Belgium and America, and was denounced by Robespierre as responsible for sowing discord among the Jacobins, tried by the revolutionary tribunal and executed on March 24, 1794 at the age of 48. – Errata for both parts on p. 164. A contemporary handwritten note on recto of the rear blank of volume 1 states that these three volumes were bought together, in April 1789, at Cap François, Saint-Domingue: “acheté au Cap françois isles S. Domingues au mois d’avril 1789. 21 les 3 vol” ! Verso front free blank more or less repeats this: ” 3 vol. y compris les N considérations en Réponse acheté au Cap St. Domingues 1789.”

The Golden Age

(HEMSTERHUIS, F.) Alexis ou de l’Age d’Or. A Riga, Chez Jean Frederic Hartknoch, 1787. With engraved folding diagram at end. 188 pp. Small 8vo. Contemporary polished calf, richly gilt spine, label with gilt lettering, red edges, held in a marbled slipcase.

€ 950

Stoddard, ‘François Hemsterhuis: Some Uncollected Authors VIII’, in: The Book Collector, Summer 2001, pp. 186-201, number 11; Fresco, Geeraedts & Hammacher, Frans Hemsterhuis (1721-1790), Sources, Philosophy and Reception, p. 644. First edition, only five copies listed in NUC. Frans Hemsterhuis (1721-1790), Dutch philosopher. His life and philosophy may be divided into two periods. In the first period the Lettres sur l’Homme et ses rapports was his principal work, preceded by two small, closely connected treatises, Lettres sur la Sculpture and Lettre sur les Désirs in which works Hemsterhuis argued that the essence of the aesthetic experience is longing to unite oneself with the art object. This concept became part of his theory of ethics which is set out in the Lettre sur les Désirs. The theory is further developed in the present work, on which the Platonic dialogues of his second period are based. In this second period he wrote four Platonic dialogues the most important of which are Aristée ou de la Divinitée, and Alexis ou de l’âge d’or (the present work). In Alexis Hemsterhuis, perhaps influenced by contemporary German philosophy, presented for the first time his concept of the golden age and the harmonious development of the individual. He also introduced the notion of the value of poetical truth (truth discovered by the poet in moments of enthusiasm). With these ideas Hemsterhuis had moved far from his earlier rationalism, and his thought was received with admiration and approval by representatives of the Sturm und Drang and romatic movements in philosophy. In this period he was very popular with and influenced the two Schlegels and Novalis. It as, above all, his last important book, written three years before his death. Hemsterhuis had a predilection for “marginous” printing, so that copies of his books are often wrongly described as being on large paper; in fact, all copies are grand-papier. Provenance: “Meckel, canonicus”, at inner margin of verso front flyleaf.

A complete topography of Portugal and the Portugese colonies

(CORMATIN, P.M.F.D. DE.) Voyage du ci-devant Duc du Chatelet en Portugal, ou se trouvent Des détails très intéressans sur ses Colonies, sur le Tremblement de terre de Lisbonne, sur M. de Pombal et la Cour; revue, corrigé sur le manuscrit, et augmenté de Notes sur la situation actuelle de ce Royaume et de ses Colonies, Par J.Fr. Bourgoing, ci-devant Ministre plénipotentiaire de la République française en Espagne, ….. Avec la Carte de Portugal, et la Vue de la Baie de Lisbonne. Tome Premier [-Tome Second]. A Paris, Chez F. Buisson, An VI de la République (1797). With two folding plates, one a large detailed plate of Portugal, the other a view of Lisbon Bay. Two volumes in one. [2], viii, 268 pp; [2], 260 pp. 8vo. Contemporary half calf, marbled boards, spine gilt in compartments, label with gilt lettering.

€ 900

JFBL C-622 (under Cormatin); Borba de Moraes, vol. i, p. 179 (under Chatelet): “This is a classic work about Portugal, with several chapters on Brazil, ….”; Chadenat 2058 (under Bourgoing). First edition and quite scarce, of this interesting work on Portugal: a complete topography of Portugal and the Portugese colonies in the world with interesting sections on Brazil, but deals also with Portugese possessions or settlements in Africa, with Madeira and the Azores, Cape Verde, etc. “A general survey of the political and economic situation in Portugal, with extensive infomation on overseas trade” (JFBL). Over time, various names have been suggested as author but today most copies listed in library catalogues give Cormatin as the author, usually based on the following: “Le véritable auteur de ce livre est Desotteux, officier de l’état-major de l’armée de Rochambeau, plus connu sous le nom de Cormartin. Le duc du Chatelet n’a jamais été en Portugal” (Barbier IV, 1080.) However, the preface of the work claims that this work was based on a manuscript by the Duc de Chatelet, edited, improved and with added notes by the anonymous editor. Other names given as possible authors are (obviously) the Duc de Chatelet and J.F. Bourgoin.

Rehabilitating society against the “noble sauvage.”

CASTILLON, J. DE. Discours sur l’origine de l’Inégalité parmi les Hommes. Pour servir de réponse au Discours que M. Rousseau, Citoyen de Géneve, a publié sur le même sujet. Par M. Jean de Castillon. Professeur en Philosophie & Mathématique à Utrecht, & Membre des Académies Royales de Londres, Berlin, & Gottingue, &c. &c. &c. A Amsterdam, Chez J.F. Jolly, 1756. Title printed in red and black and with title-vignette. xxxii, 368 pp. 8vo. Contemporary marbled calf, spine richly gilt, raised bands, label with gilt lettering, red edges.

€ 600

Conlon, Ouvrages Français relatifs à Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 68; Schosler, p. 48; Higgs 1146; Kress 5497; Goldsmiths 9191; INED 1001. First edition. Criticizing the ideas of Rousseau and rehabilitating society against the “noble sauvage.” Contains numerous observations on population and luxury: people cannot survive, prosper and increase in number without the produce of their labor. Civilization brings humanity happines and a long healthy life, as does education. Property is not evil and neither are the laws: they serve to change natural laws into civil ones. Luxury is in itself good. Castillon also cites Mandeville and Hutcheson in this refutation of Rousseau. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the French philosopher, writer, and political theorist, published Discours sur l’origine de l’inegalité parmi les hommes in 1755. Castillon replied to Rousseau in Réponse, giving his own defence of progress and modern civility. Published in Amsterdam in 1756, Castillon’s work was addressed to Maupertuis, as President of the Berlin Academy of Science. Castillon opposed the views of Rousseau and his supporters, favouring the ideas of thinkers of the English Enlightenment. He also translated John Locke’s Elements of Natural Philosophy into French with the title Abrégé de physique, publishing this in 1758. He wrote a detailed commentary on Newton’s Arithmetica universalis publishing a Latin edition of the work with his commentary in Amsterdam in 1761. For a good article on Castillon or Castiglione see: http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Castillon.html. Goldsmiths, INED and Schosler state that the author is named G.F.M.M. Salvemini de Castiglione, in French Castillon. – Handwritten ex-libris in blank portion of title, boards a bit discoloured, but a fine copy with good margins.

Principal source for the history of ancient Greek philosophy

DIOGENES LAERTIUS. De vita, & moribus philosophorum libri decem, nuper ad vetusti Graeci codicis fidem accuratissime castigati, ….. Basel, Valentin Curio, 1524. With woodcut printer’s device on verso last leaf and several woodcut initials. [20], 391, [1] pp. Small 4to. Contemporary blind stamped half pigskin, spine with raised bands, boards partly covered with purple paper decorated with gilt floral ornaments, clasps absent, catches present

€ 1400

Adams D-486; Graesse 397; BMSTC (German), 244. Rare Latin edition of this famous work of which the Greek editio princeps was not published until 1533 (by Froben). This is a nice Basle edition of the first history of Greek philosophy and this translation is based upon that of the Camaldolese priest Ambrosius Traversarius (1386-1439) which work appeared in Venice, Nicolas Jenson, in 1475. The present edition was edited by Curio and Michael Bentinus and is the first to be printed in the 16th century and the first to be printed in the German speaking countries. – Spine slightly damaged at foot and with some loss in one compartment, and a bit loose from book block at foot but not detached and still solid, boards somewhat stained, some minor blemishes, first leaves with a stain in upper margin, two small wormholes throughout touching the occasional letter. Handwritten name on title (D.V. Stack ?) and stamp “Ex bibliotheca Lycei Vittenbergensis” in blank portion of title. Colophon: Basiliae apud Valentinum Curionem Calendis Septembris An. M.D. XXIIII. The present work is a principal source for the history of ancient Greek philosophy: unlike many other ancient secondary sources, Diogenes Laërtius generally reports philosophical teachings without attempting to reinterpret or expand on them, which means his accounts are often closer to the primary sources. Due to the loss of so many of the primary sources on which Diogenes relied, his work has become the foremost surviving source on the history of Greek philosophy. “….the author of the only extant continuous account of the lives and doctrines of the chief Greek philosophers.” The work is “chiefly important for some of its biographical material and for the fragments from the works of the philosophers and poets.” (Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ii, p. 408.)

Edition “de Luxe”

MENARD, L. Rêveries d’un Païen Mystique. Préface de Maurice Barrès ….. Portrait gravé à l’eau-forte par G. Noyon. Paris, A. Durel, 1909. With engraved portrait. [6, portrait included], xxxv, [1], 182, [2] pp. 8vo (15,5 x 22,5 cm). Brown jansenist style morocco, spine with raised bands and gilt lettering, all edges gilt, gilt inside dentelles, original covers and spine preserved, binding signed “David.”

€ 750

Maitron, DBMOF, iii, pp. 78-79; Sandra W. Dolbow, Dictionary of Modern French Literature, p. 203; Carteret, Trésor du Bibliophile, vol. ii, p. 127 for the 1876 and 1895 edition but not listing this one; Talvart & Place, Bibliographie des Auteurs modernes, xiv, 172. Rare edition “de luxe”, with a nice engraved portrait and a nice preface by Maurice Barrès. This is number 74 of 200 copies printed, “petit in 8vo, numérotés à la presse (1 à 200) sur beau papier velin d’Arches, fabriqué spécialement pour cette édition.” “Ecrivain d’un talent universel”, Ménard was a poet, inventor, philosopher and historian of religions, political pamphleteer and painter. He was a student with Baudelaire at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, and active supporter of the 1848 revolution: his Prologue d’une Révolution is very rare and an important work dealing with this revolution and its causes. It was published in Proudhon’s Le Peuple in 1848-1849 and earned him 15 months in prison. On his release he went into exile in London and Brussels where he found his friends Louis Blanc and Blanqui again and where he befriended Marx and Engels. After the amnesty of 1859 he returned to Paris and from then on devoted himself primarily to the arts. He found in polytheism a social and moral guide, a union of order and liberty in which reason, imagination, art, religion, and politics could flourish. His best known work is the present work: a mixture of mystical poetry, philosophical dialogues and a number of much admired tales. The work exercised a profound influence on among others Barrès, R. de Montesquiou, Anatole France, Leconte de Lisle, etc. – Exlibris Georges Vandaele on free front end paper, a beautiful copy with its original covers and spine preserved, printed on beautiful paper with large margins.

Mechanical production as means to improve the condition of labourers

(CELNARD, ELIZABETH.) Des Machines, de leur influence sur la prosperité de la nation et le bien-être des ouvriers. Paris, de l’Imprimerie de David, 1831. – (Followed by:) (TURCK, L.) Dialogue entre plusieurs ouvriers, sur les avantages des machines. Paris, de l’Imprimerie de David, 1831. – (Followed by:) (BERENGER.) De l’influence des mécaniques sur le prix des salaires et le bien-être du peuple. Paris, Imprimerie de David, 1831. Three works bound in one volume. [4], 67, [1] pp.; 32 pp.; 76 pp. 12mo. Original blind paper wrappers, partly loose and damaged, kept in a half morocco slipcase with marbled boards and gilt lettering to spine (Atelier Laurenchet).

€ 725

Kress C.2780; Goldsmiths’ 26948; not in Einaudi. Here collected are three prize winning essays offered to the Société d’Instruction Elémentaire and dealing with the advantages (or disadvantages) of machines in the production processes. The preface to the first work mentions these three works as the winners. All three works argue in favour of industrialization and the advantages of the introduction of mechanical production as means to improve the condition of labourers, combat mendicity and poverty and as having a positive effect on workers income. The Society for Elementary Instruction was founded in 1815 and encouraged free, nondenominational elementary schools. The society was founded by Lazare Carnot during his brief tenure as minister of the interior in the Hundred Days. Under the Restoration, it attracted the support of such prominent liberals as Benjamin Constant, François Guizot, and Alphonse de Lamartine and served as a moderate and respectable lobby for secular primary education. It was declared a public utility in 1831, which permitted it to raise and disburse funds and to establish independent schools. Publishing a review (Journal de l’éducation populaire), the society concerned itself with new methods of teaching, obtaining decent pay and working conditions for elementary school teachers, and awarding medals to outstanding instructors (see: Historical Dictionary of France from the 1815 Restoration to the Second Empire, vol. ii, pp. 994-995). – A bit loose but cords and stitching intact, uncut.

Lithographed and done in some 100 copies only

(BIGOT) DE MOROGUES, (P.M.S.) Recherche des causes de la richesse et de la misère des peuples civilisés. Application des principes de l’économie politique et des calculs de la statistique au gouvernement de l’Etat, dans le but de trouver les moyens d’assurer sa stabilité et sa force, en assurant le bonheur du peuple et sa tranquillité. Par le Bon. de Morogues ……. (Paris), Lith. Th. Delarue, (1834). [6], 649, [1] pp. 4to. Modern half blue morocco, marbled boards, gilt lettering to spine, (Atelier Laurenchet), original front cover preserved.

€ 1250

Kress C.3672; Goldsmiths 28401; Coquelin & Guillaumin, p. 177; Granier, Bibliographie Charitable, 1412; not in Dada (listing three other works but not this one); Blanqui, ii, p. 406; not in Einaudi; not in Mattioli; Catalogue de la Bibliothèque de la Compagnie d’Assurances sur la Vie “Utrecht”, ii, p. 1083. The only edition, lithographed from the manuscript and done in 100 copies only, this work is extremely rare. Bigot considered luxury and the inequality of wealth as necessary causes and by-products of modern civilization, but he also recognized the negative effects of industrial capitalism and pleaded for redistribution of the most extreme wealth, poor relief and the foundation of agricultural colonies. His economic views were based on his moral and religious beliefs of which the improvement of the conditions of the most depraved formed an essential part. The work is an important source for the study of poverty and mendicity in France. Includes quite some statistical information on the conditions of the rural population and labourers, and contains important chapters on the negative effects of industrialization. Pierre-Marie-Sebastien, Baron de Bigot de Morogues (1776-1840), agronomist, philantropist, political writer, and member of the Chamber of Peers. Destined for a career in the Navy, a family-tradition, Bigot’s future was first altered through the coming of the Revolution, and then through his marriage with Claudinne de Montaudouin. His wife held one of the largest domains in Sologne, the Chateau de la Source, and Bigot became an agronomist. For the next forty years he wrote numerous articles and pamphlets on specific agricultural improvements. Both on his own estates and in local agricultural societies he encouraged the use of new techniques to better the lot of the local peasantry. More broadly, Bigot was interested in the social, economic, and moral conditions of the poor. He emphasized the need for society to educate the young in basic skills so that they could function better in the modern world …. Bigot saw luxery and the inequality of wealth as necessary causes and by-products of modern civilization, but he also recognized the negative effects of industrial capitalism. Economic progress might raise the level of civilization in both the arts and morality, but something had to be done to help the poorer classes who frequently suffered under such progress (Historical Dictionary of France from the 1815 Restauration tot the Second Empire, vol. i, pp. 106-108.) Bigot’s works were part of a wider movement represented by authors such as Villermé, Villeneuve Bargemont, and Buret, informing an ever-increasing public about what was happening in the big industrial towns. (…..) But all recognized that poverty was keeping step with capitalist concentration, and that it was poverty of an entirely new character, utterly different from that of previous periods; all condemned the idea of unbridled liberalism and drew attention to the need for social legislation (Jacques Droz, Europe between Revolutions, 1815-1848, p. 63). – The original front cover laid down, with some spots and a bit dirty, small repair causing loss of a few letter in the dedication (see below), title-page not quite clean and with some small loss in blank upper margin, a bit stained in gutter towards the end. Copy with a three-line handwritten dedication on the front cover by the author to Louis-René Villermé.